common dandelion species

They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. Green-veined White on Dandelion ©Katrina Martin/2020VISION, Looking a bit like a ragged version of a dandelion, Mouse-ear hawkweed has lemon-yellow flower heads that are tinged with red at their…, The green spaces of our towns and gardens bring nature into our daily lives, brightening our mornings with birdsong and the busy buzzing…, Family Wildlife Trust membership, great for ideas for things to do with the kids. Reference: Notes: Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=991122464, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 11:08. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. An annoyance, perhaps, but far from being aggressively spreading plants that alter natural habitats, the hallmark of a truly invasive species. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. Species Detail - Common Dandelion (Taraxacum polyodon) - Species information displayed is based on all datasets. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? [53] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. ssp. Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. Types of Dandelions: White Found growing natively in eastern, central and southern Asia, notably in Korea and Japan, the white dandelion (Taraxacum albidum), or … Wigg. in height. Each flower is composed of dozens or hundreds of florets. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Dandelion leaves contain a lot of vitamins. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. There are around three hundred different species and they grow in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America but are also found in most areas of the world including Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Both species are edible in their entirety. Dandelions can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing season. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. [11], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. [56], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. The Common Dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Hedgerow Type: Common Names: Dandelion, Dent-de lion, Pissabed, Piss-en-lit : Scientific Name: Taraxacum officinale : Season Start: Jan : Season End: Dec : Please note that each and every hedgerow item you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. Native to Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; the common name derives from the French ' dent de lion ', meaning 'lion's tooth', which refers to the deeply toothed, deep green leaves (4), … Dandelion is a highly useful green and seed to collect for the rehabber pantry. – dandelion Species: Taraxacum officinale F.H. Common Name: Dandelion - Kukraundha, Kanphool, Common dandelion, Dandelion: Family: Asteraceae or Compositae : USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: This plant has been mentioned in various books on poisonous plants but any possible toxins will be of very low concentration and toxicity[10]. Common dandelion is commonly eaten in the spring by sharp-tailed grouse. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. The young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The scientific name of Dandelion is Taraxacum while its common name is Dandelion. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. The dandelion does not exist of a single species, but of an agglomeration of many micro species, which is partly the result of its possibility of multiplication by means of unfertilized seeds (cloning). officinale – common dandelion P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Common dandelions, native to Europe and Asia, produce many wind dispersed seeds that easily spread over large areas. Common dandelion is distinguished from other plants by the presence of milky juice, lobed or divided leaves in the rosette stage, the soft texture and irregular lobing of leaves, the absence of prickles on margins or midribs, the smooth or softly hairy leaf surfaces, and a deeply penetrating taproot. Taraxacum officinale is a ruderal species, which can be commonly found in highly urbanized areas. Both species are edible in their entirety. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. Dandelions may seem humdrum, but their genus has roughly 40 species – including some plants with red flowers and others in danger of extinction. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. [49], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' View this plant in a garden. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. [17] The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Taraxacum officinale . [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. × [43], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. 1962. [citation needed]. At one time its parts were used as medicinal herbs, coffee substitute and in textile dyeing. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. × Terrestrial Map - 10km. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[10]. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. Taraxacum F.H. Although dandelion is considered a weed, it has had several different uses. While dandelions make lawn care m ceratophorum (Ledeb.) In April they almost dominate the landscape. non Rodin : Taraxacum vulgare Lam. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. General Description: Probably the most well know of all wildflowers, the common dandelion measures an average of 5-45 cm. Also known as lion's tooth, priest's crown, swine's snout, fairy clock and pissenlit (pee-the-bed). Taraxacum Species, Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. Common dandelion plants can be distinguished because young leaves do not have hairs, whereas cat's ear dandelion leaves have dense hairs. [30] The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. [48] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. officinale) Although Katmai has multiple species of native dandelions, the common dandelion is a threatening invasive in the park. [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. 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