wall tile mortar ratio

For example, a 3/8\" notch trowel will produce a 3/16th inch thick coating after the tiles are … Concrete and mortar Mix ratios vary depending on the project you are working on. For roofing projects, a firmer mixture is generally required. Large Tile & Stone Mortar. Thinset is a mixture of cement, sand and a water-retention compound used for installing stone tiles. How to Mix Mortar. Then which proportion should you use for a particular type of masonry construction? Such as brickwork, plasterwork, tiles work, pointing work, and patchwork, etc. This guide was written by Danny Woodley and was last updated in August 2019. Since thinset tile mortar has … ft area . So that you can better understand the mortar mix ratio. Covering breathable materials with non-breathable cement, gypsum plaster or waterproofing sealers can lead to significant damp problems. Professional, Large-and-Heavy-Tile Mortar with Polymer Large-Format Floor & Wall Tile Mortar is a polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar ideal for installing large-format tile on floors, walls and countertops. In order for the mortar to bond properly it also has to be mixed properly. Plasticiser can be used in the second coat. Ridges, valley tiles and verges should be secured with a nail or clip, either in addition to the mortar in replacement of it, this is called a dry fix method. Because it’ll start to set too early. The photo below shows cracked mortar – typical issues that can occur if the mix is too strong: Below you’ll find our guide to mortar mixes: The best mix will depend on the type of brick and the location of the wall. Mortar is not the same as cement, concrete, or grout. This mortar is also suitable for at-grade applications like walkways and brick patios. It’s a liquid. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "ae832d5ef44bda585688464709d03fee" );document.getElementById("cb2e6c25de").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Notify me of follow-up comments by email. I want to discuss a little bit about these ingredients. But due to consistency and easy application, it’s ideal for repointing and similar repair works on existing buildings. It is a bonding material. Plain tiles) 3 parts soft sand*, 1 part cement and plasticiser. Make cement and plaster mixing easy with this heavy-duty mixer paddle. So you need to be careful mixing water to the mix. VersaBond-LFT 50 lbs. This page contains a guide to rendering prices in the UK. Don’t forget; we have price guides for hundreds of home improvement projects. Soft sand is also known as building sand and contains fine grains of sand and is used for bricklaying, pointing and where thin layers of mortar are required. The strength can be increased upto 2.0 N/mm2 by decreasing one portion of sand. There are four main types of mortar mix: N, O, S, and M. Each type is mixed with a different ratio of cement, lime, and sand to produce specific performance characteristics such as flexibility, bonding properties, and compressive strength. This type of sand is used in the situation where thick layers of mortar are required. For Airtec blocks above DPC, 6 parts soft sand, 1 part cement and 1 part plasticiser or 5 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Different type of masonry construction demands different mortar mix ratio. Mortar coverage becomes particularly important as tile sizes get larger and longer (think wood plank tile). It’s typically used for brick laying and pointing. Required fields are marked *. Plasterers sand is not as coarse as sharp sand but not as fine as soft sand. . The most common mortar mix ratio for wall plastering is 1:6, here 1 part is cement and 6 part is sand in a workable amount of water. It makes a typical mortar mix sticky and easier to point over. Not only will the mortar fail to bind sufficiently, it may also crumble after a short amount of time or wash away after minimal weathering. Now please share which mortar mix ratio you use in your area for bricklaying, plaster, tiles, and pointing work. This page contains a price guide for wall repointing. For tiles where only a thin bedding of mortar is required (i.e. FEATURES AND BENEFITS • Multipurpose: Ideal for floor and wall tile 15" x 15" (38 x 38 cm) and larger, What seems to work for small tiles no longer works. Tile set by the thinset method is adhered to the substrate with a thin layer of \"thinset\" cement. Compare prices for hundreds of jobs and find the average cost. i.e. 2 or 3 parts soft sand 1 part sharp sand, 1 cement and half-part lime is optional. This type of sand should be washed before use to remove clay and salts. It’s washed to remove salts and clay residue that could cause efflorescence (salting). Ceramic tile offers more to home spaces than classic beauty. Lime: It can be used in conjunction with cement. For softer or more permeable bricks, 4 parts sand, half part cement and 1 part lime can be used. Waterproofer can be applied to the first coat if the property is modern. This page is part of our blog and is all about mortar mixes for home improvement and construction projects. mortar ideal for installing large-format tile on floors, walls and countertops. Such as plasticizer, waterproofers, frost proofers, accelerators, and color additives, etc. For buildings, we use the following mixes –. Mortar bonds bricks and other units of masonry together and adheres tiles to an underlayment. If you don’t, the cement in the screed will push moisture towards the walls where the soft bricks and plaster will absorb the water. It’s commonly used with soft, permeable bricks that would likely crack if cement is used. Subscribe to our newsletter and get a free "estimating Cheat Sheet", © 2020. 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This type of cement is designed to adhere well in a thin layer - typically not greater than 3/16th thick. The strength of 1:6 ratio of mortar after 28 days is 3.0 N/mm2. The ratio of sand to cement along with water depends on the type of concrete blocks you are installing. Plasticiser is optional. Concrete is used in many places around the home, for laying a firm sub-floor or a base for paving, whilst Mortar is the most important bit in any wall.. This large-and-heavy-tile mortar (formerly known as “medium-bed mortar”) is designed to bond and support large tile over a diverse range of substrates. But I have doubts about its function. If you add this to the mortar mix, you’ll have a little time to work with the mortar. Color Additives: The name says it all. The O type mortar provides relatively low compressive strength, at only about 350 psi. Making your own type S mortar is fairly straight forward. Plain tiles) 3 parts soft sand*, 1 part cement and plasticiser. Simply combine the following ingredients: 2 parts cement, 1 part lime, and 8 to 9 parts sand. For soft older bricks already bedded onto a lime based mortar; a lime and sand mix should be used, the ratio will depend on the type of lime and how much water content it has. So, you need to be careful while adding water to the mortar mix. Colourants can be used but only use as much as you need and avoid excessive amounts. Such as masonry foundations, retaining walls, and sewers. Cement mortar is used to attach wall tiles or floor tiles while tile adhesive is suitable for installing backsplash tiles or countertop tiles. For tiles where only a thin bedding of mortar is required (i.e. Neither should it be so sloppy that it’s impossible to work with. … This mortar mix ratio is very similar to type O mortar, so be sure to carefully measure your ingredients when making either type. Unmodified mortars for tile Mortar for tile with any side > than 15" GOOD Uncoupling Membrane Mortar (576086 gray) Mortar for tile with all sides 12" or less GOOD Floor Tile Mortar (12639 gray) Wall-tile setting materials BETTER Premium Mortar (309061 1 U.S. gal, 309062 3.5 U.S. gals) Polymer-Enriched Thin-Set Mortar Ceramic Tile Mortar is a regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar for installing tile and stone on floors and walls in thin-set applications. Mortar is a mixture of fine sand particles, cement, water and sometimes lime. For blocks below DPC, 4.5 parts soft sand, 1 part cement and 1 part lime or 4 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. White Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar is a general purpose, economical, polymer-modified medium bed mortar for use with large format porcelain, ceramic and natural stone tile. This mortar provides a medium compressive strength of 750 psi. If you continue to work with a mortar that has set, you’ll reduce the strength of the finished mortar. Do You Consent to Our Data and Cookie Policy? Ceramic Tile Mortar Standard mortar for ceramic tile and most stone. You should at least know basic things like the mortar mix ratio or amount of water (most want somewhere around 6 quarts of water per 50lb. Cracking can be avoided by reducing the amount of cement in the mixture and ensuring the mortar is wet enough. After 15 minutes, give the thinset another slow stir with the drill. Such as the location of applications, type of masonry works, quality of masonry blocks and ingredients of mortar, etc. proportioning of cement sand in mortar provides consistency in the performance and appearance of masonry construction. Sometimes we think that adding more cement to the mix will make the mortar strong. Mortar mix is a critically important building component that must be combined thoroughly. Sharp sand is more coarse than soft sand. Thinset is your go-to tile mortar for most indoor and outdoor applications. Such as bedding roof tiles and garden projects. For most domestic builds such as house building, use one of these mixes: 4 parts soft sand with 1 part cement, add water and plasticiser. Sharp sand is more coarse than building/soft sand and is perfect for mixing with other sands to prevent cracking during the drying process. The mortar mix ratio actually depends on various things. Thinset tile mortar has a smooth, slippery consistency, similar to mud. For your bricklaying project, learning to mix up the right amount of good mortar will save you time and money. In general, we don't recommend the use of modified thin-set mortar to set tile over … Jun 15, 2017 … Unlike unmodified mortar, which consists only of a blend of Portland cement, sand, and water retention agents, modified thinset. It is also heatproof, so it won't lose its grip in hot environments. The mortar mix ratio for bricklaying mostly depends on the size and location of the brick wall and the type of bricks. Concrete is a mixture of aggregates such as crushed rock, gravel and sand that is mixed with cement and water. For period buildings: Lay a lime-based screed as the floor needs to breathe. Lime allows materials such as bricks to breathe, it’s commonly used on older period buildings with soft, permeable bricks that would likely crack if cement was used. By browsing our site, you agree to their use. The mortar mix ratio for tiles mostly depends on the thickness of the bedding mortar. Chimney maintenance costs are published on this page. Cement: As you are a construction professional you already know about this. Therefore, you should only use them when absolutely necessary and not as a matter of course. Mortar provides structural integrity to a wall, floor, or other structure but is flexible enough to allow shifting without cracking. It shouldn’t also be used in areas subjected to high winds. Steel Calculation For Beams: The Easiest Process, Column Reinforcement Calculation: A Step By Step Process, Pile Reinforcement Calculation: An Easy Process, How To Calculate Concrete Quantity For Slabs, Minimum Concrete Cover For Rebar: A Guide For Construction Professionals. Traditional versions are cement-based powders that are mixed with water prior to application. Strong mortar dries too quickly and shrink. Add 3 parts sand and 1 part masonry cement. Modern buildings are constructed with thermal efficiency in mind and sealants, waterproofing materials and cement based products can be used. So it’s best to consult with your local engineers or visit the construction projects in your area and ask help from them to know the best mortar mix ratio for your particular job. This mortar is useful for the above-grade, interior, and non-load-bearing walls. Please make comments below along with the name of your city and country…. Type M. The last of the four most common mortar types is type M. Being able to make the correct concrete mix and knowing how to mix mortar are essential skills for any ardent DIY-er. Once the thinset is mixed, allow 15 minutes for the thinset to absorb the water. This large-and-heavy-tile mortar (formerly known as “medium-bed mortar”) is designed to bond and support large tile over a diverse range of substrates. It’s often used in situations where a slightly thicker layer of mortar is required – chimney flaunching, bedding roof tiles and many garden projects will require sharp sand. For high traffic areas, a stronger mix of 3 parts soft sand and 1 part cement can be used. Sand: It’s a fine aggregate that is mixed with cement and water to prepare mortar. This varies according to the needs of the task: above ground is 5:1, below ground is 3:1 and internal walls is 8:1. bag), slake time, pot life (time between mixing and when the mixture is no longer usable), and open time (time between spreading the adhesive and having the tile … That’s why it’s not recommended to use in exposed locations. In this video we show you How To Trowel Thinset Mortar For Tiling on Bathroom shower walls. Premium, Polymer-Enriched, Large-and-Heavy-Tile and Thin-Set Mortar Large Tile & Stone Mortar is a premium, regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) large-and-heavy-tile-mortar that is ideal for installing large-format tile and stone on floors, walls and countertops. Before discussing this, let’s see the mix ratio for different types of mortar guided by ASTM 270, As you now know the mix ratio of different types of mortar, now let’s see…. I’ll discuss the matter all through in this post. detailed information about lime/sand ratios, This page contains a price guide for wall repointing, Chimney maintenance costs are published on this page, This page contains a price guide for a new patio, This page contains a guide to rendering prices in the UK, differences between a dry and wet fixing method, Roof repair prices can be located on our main price list here. For older period homes, a lime-based should be used instead of cement. Soft sand contains fine grains of sand and mostly used for brickwork, pointing, and where thin layers of mortar are required. Most bricks and blocks are quite porous and as only a thin layer of mortar is required, a wet or “sloppy” mix is often preferable. The second coat must be slightly weaker than the first, so 3 parts plasterers sand, 2 parts sharp sand, 1 part cement and half lime. The firmness of the wet mortar can be altered by changing the type of sand, the sand/cement ratio and the amount of water added to the mix. This is the reason we soak masonry units in water before using it. Mortar is the element that bonds bricks or other masonry units together and provides structural capacity to the wall or other structure. It’s also useful for interior load-bearing walls. This durable and long-lasting flooring choice requires … *we recommend choosing a soft sand that is fairly coarse, avoid soft sands that are at the “silty” end of the spectrum. So the mortar mix ratio should be in such a way that ensures the mortar is wet enough till the job is done. If you don’t want to mix the materials yourself, you can get it delivered by a ready mix supplier. Needless to say that mortar should never be so firm that it doesn’t have enough water content to create a chemical reaction. Masonry units absorb some amount of water from the mortar and thus reduces the water-cement ratio of the mortar. tile trowel size Chart Tile trowels come in many shapes and sizes, generally starting out from a 3/16″ v-notch up to the 1/2″ square notch. As a result, It produces cracks. Not a step you want to skip. Because roof tiles are located in an exposed location that’s likely to experience rainfall, a strong mix should be used. Such as foundations, retaining walls, and driveways. But it has relatively poor adhesion and sealing properties. You can learn more about cookies and how to control or delete them here. Cement is the binding element . All tiles except Plain tiles – 2 parts soft sand, 1 part sharp sand and 1 part cement. It’s preferable to use either sharp sand, plasterers sand or a mixture of two. It’s a general-purpose mix and is recommended for exterior and above-grade walls that are exposed to high heat and severe weather. How to Spread Thinset Evenly for Tile Walls. (19 mm) thick on … The type of sand and cement mixture needed will dictate the exact ratio. Plasticiser is a liquid that is added to the mix to make the material easier to work with and it also slows down the curing process slightly. The photo below shows a ridge tile that was bedded onto a very weak and totally unsuitable mortar mix. Soft sand can be added to the mix but we feel it shouldn’t comprise more than 25% of the entire mix. You don't want to let your mortar dry out or mix at the wrong consistency. Become informed about tradesman's prices and use our guide as a starting point. Mostly used in outer plastering. Normally, it isn’t used in new constructions. How to Mix Mortar for Ceramic Tile. Such as soft sand, sharp sand, plaster sand, etc. Plasticizer: To make the mortar sticky and easier to point over, the plasticizer is added to the mix. Use it at your own risk. I hope this post will help you to choose the best mortar mix ratio for different types of masonry works. This sand is normally mixed with other sand to prepare the mortar and it helps to prevent cracks during the drying process. There are also some other ingredients that can be added to the mix. Polymer-Enriched Thin-Set Mortar Porcelain Tile Mortar is a regular-setting, polymer-enriched (“modified”) mortar for installing a wide range of tile and stone over a diverse range of substrates in thin-set applications. The mortar mix ratio for most of the 5 inches thick wall in a residential building is done with, For retaining walls which may be in regular contact with water, use. Chimney flaunching will receive a lot of rainfall so the mix should be strong, this prevents it washing out. In a building construction project, there are different types of masonry works. If thickness increases you can increase the sand quantity into the mix. Mortar is a blend of water, cement, sand, and additives mixed into a strong but sticky adhesive. Use 1 part cement and 4 parts sharp sand for most of the tiles work. It may crumble after a short amount of time. The terms thinset cement, thinset mortar, dryset mortar, and drybond mortar are synonymous. It is used in all kinds of masonry, such as for holding brick, stone, and even tile together. 1 part soft sand, 2 parts sharp sand, 1 cement, half part lime is optional. Other names for thinset are dryset mortar… The most common mortar mix ratio for wall plastering is 1:6, here 1 part is cement and 6 part is sand in a workable amount of water. It has the highest amount of portland cement and is used in heavy loads and below-grade construction. Filed Under: Building Materials Tagged With: Masonry work, Mortar, Your email address will not be published. If the mortar on your trowel doesn't drip off but can be shaken off, you have the right ratio. Floors and walls are often constructed with lime, a material that lets the moisture in the building escape. This applies to any tile with any side 15 inches or longer. Any colder and there is a risk of frost which will weaken the finished mortar. Although anything from 3-5 parts sharp sand to 1 part sand would be acceptable for most situations. It can be used but its reliability is debatable. This page has more detailed information about lime/sand ratios. The first coat of render should ideally be slightly stronger than the second coat. The basic mix ratio for concrete is one part water, two parts cement and three parts sand. But avoid excessive amounts. It is primarily used for restoring the masonry on ancient buildings. 5 degrees is the lowest temperature that mortar can be laid. Proper proportioning of mortar ingredients helps in having the following advantages: Uniformity of strength Uniform workability Uniform color Uniformity of proportions and yields Mainly the proportioning of the cement and sand for mortar are conducted […] For chimney repointing to a modern home, the best mix will depend on how exposed the chimney is and it’s location. You now know about the different types of mortar and their uses. For wall: A good solid surface is recommended to reduce water being absorbed by the mortar mix. For the first coat 4 parts sharp/plasterers and for the second coat 5 parts sharp/plasterers. This mortar is suitable for below-grade applications. This is the perfect option for large projects. For period properties we suggest seeking the advice of a specialist who understands how older buildings are designed to breathe. So use it when you absolutely need it. Take special care during measuring sands. Frost proofer: It protects mortar from freezing conditions. Explore our full list of detailed price guides here. There are various types of sand used in construction depending on the type of masonry works. The presence of moisture content in the sand may affect the strength and bond quality of the mortar. Don’t forget; to meet new British Standards requirements for roof fixings, you cannot rely on mortar to secure the tiles in place. That means wet sand will have more volume compared with dry sand. Waterproofer: Its name says about it. The strength of 1:6 ratio of mortar after 28 days is 3.0 N/mm2. This mortar provides a very low compressive strength of only about 75 psi. The tile was not secured in place and the “mortar” could be crushed into small particles by simply squeezing it in my hand: Too strong a mix, i.e made with too much cement and your mortar may dry too quickly, shrink and crack. The basic mix ratio for most of the block wall is 1 part cement and 4 part soft sand or 1 part cement and 5 part soft sand. Description:- cement sand calculation for tiles .in this topic we calculate cement sand calculation for tiles of 100 sq. This page contains information about the differences between a dry and wet fixing method. Concrete is usually laid in thick layers, the larger particles prevent cracking during the drying process. For bedding under the slabs use 5 parts sharp sand, 1 part soft sand and 1 cement. For pointing use 4 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. The mortar mix ratio for bricklaying mostly depends on the size and location of the brick wall and the type of bricks. Accelerators: It accelerates the dry time of mortar. It depends on the type and location of the job you’re going to execute. See Our Full Price List The Gardener’s Corner Get a Quote Calculators Budget Planning Spreadsheets Tradesman’s Day Rates & Wages Help Guides See All Of Our Polls Free Photos Visit Our Blog Login, Privacy. Frost proofer should not be relied upon to protect mortar from freezing conditions. The compressive strength of this type of mortar is at least 2500 psi. Check Price Here, With an impressive 70 litre capacity, this electric mixer will save you time on any job, large or small. As outlined on diydata.com, an older method of mixing mortar included portland cement, hydrated lime … The grains of plaster sand is not as fine as soft sand but not as coarse as sharp sand. For locations in the east and south of the country or any sheltered location that experiences less windswept rain, a slightly weaker mix can be used. Also called "thin set" this is how to mix it. Use 1 part cement 2 parts plaster sand, 2 parts sharp sand, and half part lime for most of the plastering work. If you want to add color in a mortar you can add this. Data & Cookies About Us Contacting Us Disclaimer. Privacy Policy, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). A pure soft sand mix shouldn’t be used when rendering. Suitable for most electric drills. This page contains a price guide for a new patio. Concrete blocks or cement blocks are different than bricks. Whether you’re laying bricks, pointing, renewing chimney flaunching, laying screed or rendering, we have the best mix ratios for you. The mortar will fail to bind sufficiently. The Most Powerful Moss Killing Chemical You Can Buy, 6 Major Home Improvements You Can Do WITHOUT Planning Permission. Frost proofers can be added to the mortar but shouldn’t be relied upon. A Civil Engineer . AVAILABLE AT SELECT RETAIL LOCATIONS ONLY While some tradespeople make the two mixes the same strength, the second coat should never be stronger than the first coat. It can be washed away after minimal weathering. Thinset mortar is a blend of cement, very finely graded sand, and a water retention compound that allows the cement to properly hydrate. Mortar is the bonding material between bricks, concrete block, stone, and many other masonry materials.It is made from Portland cement, lime, sand, and water in varying ratios. Using the same mortar mix ratio for all types of masonry work will hamper the quality of the construction. We know that the tile is thin object material usually comes in the shape of square and rectangular and it is made of hard material like ceramic ,stone and used for generally covering of roof ,floors and wall. Mortar mix ratio i.e. Lime can be used as an alternative to cement in some mixes or used in conjunction with it. Visit Claire's corner for insightful research into topics she's passionate about. Because of the moisture present in the sand, it’ll cause the bulking of the sand. How to Mix Mortar for Laying Tile. This guide details the difference between tile adhesive and mortar, and some tips on how to apply tile adhe It’s also can be used as an alternative to cement in some mixes. Mortar Mix Ratio For Bricklaying. Cement mortar calculation in tile work of 100 sq.ft area and Cement calculation in tile work of 100 sq.ft area and how we calculate consumption of cement in fixing of wall tiles at wall site. Period properties are designed to breathe. But strong mortar can also hamper the quality of the job. Job Prices makes use of cookies to help us provide a better user experience. *we recommend choosing a soft sand that is fairly coarse, avoid … The first coat of render can be 2 parts plasterers sand and 2 parts sharp sand, 1 part cement and half part lime. Check Price Here, Perfect for DIYers and those on a limited budget is this 5-piece trowel set by Draper Redline. For buildings, we use the following mixes – The mortar mix ratio for most of the 5 inches thick wall in a residential building is done with 1 part cement and 4 parts soft sand mortar mix ratio. Tradespeople and builders often use different terms to describe cement, concrete and mortar, so here’s a quick guide designed to avoid confusion: Cement is a greyish coloured powder that is mixed with sand and/or other aggregates to create concrete or mortar. For chimneys in wind swept rainy parts of the country use a mix of 3 parts soft sand and 1 part cement. Your email address will not be published. Does what it says on the tin and is often used when rendering. For modern homes: 4 parts sharp sand and 1 part cement. It is usually laid in thin layers as thicker layers may crack during the drying process. Once you've set your tile, your tile will be … Accelerators speed up the drying time but often leave you with little time to work with the mortar before it starts to set. For retaining walls or anywhere likely to be in regular contact with water, 3 parts soft sand and one part cement, 1 part lime is optional depending on the type of brick/block. Roof repair prices can be located on our main price list here. Thinset tile mortar provides a very strong bond and is resistant to moisture and mold growth. Unfortunately, some profiled roof tiles require a very thick bedding of mortar, so to reduce the risk of cracking, sharp sand should be introduced to the mix for most tiles. A wrong mix ratio or careless measuring of mortar’s ingredients can make the mortar weak. Waterproofer is different to plasticiser. Some roof tiles require a bedding layer of mortar that’s several inches thick and a wet/sloppy mix wouldn’t be suitable, it would slump off the tile. Check Price Here, Perfect for mixing small amounts of cement or plaster in confined spaces, less mess and easy storage. Check Price Here. Depending on the types of tiles you can use anything from 3-6 parts sharp sand with 1 part cement for preparing the mortar. All tiles except Plain tiles – 2 parts soft sand, 1 part sharp sand and 1 part cement. Porcelain Tile Mortar Thin-set mortar for porcelain and stone. As you know mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, water, and sometimes lime. Vertical walls require a different consistency than horizontal surfaces, and you can vary the mixture as necessary for other block projects. With a non-slumping formula to eliminate lippage, VersaBond-LFT can be applied to 3/4 in. Because flaunching is laid several inches thick, add sharp sand to the mix to avoid cracking during the drying process. 1:5 ratio of mortar impart compressive strength of 5.0 N/mm2 after 28 days of cube testing. The S-type mortar has high tensile-bond strength and provides at 1800 psi of compressive strength. Due to its low structural capacity, it isn’t recommended to use in exterior applications. Frost proofers, accelerators and colour additives can be included in the mix as required.

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