white phosphorus israel

Palestinian media reported Tuesday night the detonation of white phosphorous bombs to illuminate the sky over the Gaza Strip as Israel Air Force jets were reportedly flying overhead. The Amnesty International report either denies that fighters were present or argues that the presence of fighters among the civilians obligates Israel to refrain from using indiscriminate weapons. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destru… This difference in tone and process between Israeli investigations and the reports issued by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch has been evident after every round of conflict between Israel and its enemies. A few anecdotal incidents cannot establish whether these casualties were unfortunate rare incidents or representative of a pattern of indiscriminate use. As the Israeli reports points out The obscurant smoke shells were used by the IDF for military purposes only (e.g. A second component of the charges against Israel involves the broader question of proportionality. A few anecdotal incidents cannot establish whether these casualties were unfortunate rare incidents or representative of a pattern of indiscriminate use. This method (as opposed to the use of contact fuses), is consistent with the use of the projectiles for smoke-screening purposes only. Steve Stotsky is a senior research analyst at CAMERA. A Palestinian man suffering from burns consistent with white phosphorus after Israel's 2009 attack on Gaza City. It was launched from artillery shells in air-burst mode, which aggravated already devastating consequences of the attacks. In other words, while Amnesty International claims air-bursting impregnated filaments showed flagrant disregard for the safety of civilians, Israel claims just the opposite is the case. It criticizes the use of airbursts to disseminate the white phosphorus. Israel and Hamas have fought three wars since the group took control of the enclave, but reached a tentative truce in late 2018 that was renewed after successive flare-ups last year. This method (as opposed to the use of contact fuses), is consistent with the use of the projectiles for smoke-screening purposes only. A second component of the charges against Israel involves the broader question of proportionality. British soldiers also made extensive use of phosphorus grenades during the Falklands conflictto destroy Argentine positions as the peaty soil they were constructed from tended to lessen the … In January, the … The obscurant smoke shells were used by the IDF for military purposes only (, For more information on Amnesty International’s history of charging Israel with crimes review. For example, an ambulance medic reported killed by an Israeli strike was later interviewed  apparently alive and well. Although neither the US nor Israel has signed on to these conventions, both generally abide by their admonitions. Artillery in general and white phosphorus in particular should never be used in populated areas. Some 1,400 Palestinians and 13 Israelis were killed in the three-week conflict. If burning white phosphorus lands on a person's skin, it can go through to the bone. Israel has insisted that its use of white phosphorus in the conflict was permitted under international law and that it sought to avoid unnecessary civilian deaths in Gaza. S. Africa: War crime suspects must think twice. 'No corners cut' in vaccine approval, regulator says, 'One boy stood out to me - he's now my son', 'I wake up wondering if I still have a job', Why it feels like a government without a majority, 'We've lost a day of trade' over lockdown end date. In particular, Amnesty International criticizes the manner in which Israel deployed the shells. One clear difference between the Israeli report and the Amnesty International report is the tone in which it is written. Playing next. The cases investigated by Amnesty International of deaths and injuries to civilians caused by white phosphorus indicate that Israeli forces violated the prohibition on indiscriminate attack. The IDF took several precautions and other measures that were appropriate with respect to these particular munitions. Stotsky lectures widely about Middle East media coverage and was interviewed on CNN about the topic. As a weapon, white phosphorus is used to mark enemy targets and to produce smoke for concealing troop movements. The Israeli report also contradicts Amnesty International’s assertion that “Israeli forces continued to employ the same tactics for the entire duration of the 22 day offensive.” Israel stated that it changed the protocol for using the weapon after a Jan. 15 incident: … after reports of an incident on 15 January 2009 during combat in Tel al-Hawa in which white phosphorous smoke projectiles set fire to a UNRWA warehouse, an IDF directive was issued, effective through the end of the Gaza Operation, establishing a safety buffer of several hundred metres from sensitive sites when using smoke projectiles. Furthermore, air-bursting the munitions at a considerable distance above ground meant that it was less likely that any person or building would be harmed by the explosions. The heavy reliance by Amnesty International (and Human Rights Watch as well) on anecdotal incidents does not answer that question. Amnesty International has also produced a film clip accusing Israel of recklessly using white phosphorus. The Israeli report, by comparison, takes a more cautious approach, indicating that a number of incidents are still under investigation. Against this objective, one must weigh the anticipated risk of harm to civilians and property from the use of smoke munitions, which are designed to be a non-lethal type of munition. The Israeli report addresses this question: …In the case of smoke munitions containing white phosphorous, the expected military benefit was that they would protect Israeli forces from attack: a compelling military objective. A second component of the charges against Israel involves the broader question of proportionality. To review the actual reports see the links below: Stay up to date by following us on social media: Did Israel’s Use of White Phosphorus Constitute a War Crime? However, neither of these alternatives provides the same military advantages… Targeting the munitions at the ground rather than exploding them high in the air would fail to achieve the area of dispersal required for military purposes and would actually result in much more severe damage to buildings and persons on the ground. The Israeli report exposes examples of duplicity on the part of Hamas. April 22. The Israeli report on July 29 examines many of the incidents described by the Amnesty International report and offers contradictory information. While it may be tempting for critics of Israel’s military operation to discount the rebuttal offered by Israel, the longstanding bias against Israel exhibited by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch does not offer an objective source to examine the facts. Phosphorus bombs can be used to create smoke screens, but their use as weapons of war in civilian areas is banned by the Geneva Conventions. Mark Regev, Israeli government spokesperson, says that Israel has been cleared by the IRC. This difference in tone and process between Israeli investigations and the reports issued by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch has been evident after every round of conflict between Israel and its enemies. As the Israeli reports points out, Some have suggested that IDF could have used less harmful munitions, or used the munitions in a less harmful manner, to achieve the same military objective, for example, by using smoke munitions without white phosphorous or by firing the munitions as ground-burst rather than air-burst projectiles. For example, an ambulance medic reported killed by an Israeli strike was later interviewed  apparently alive and well. I heard Ansam cry ‘I am wounded in my head’. For example, an ambulance medic reported killed by an Israeli strike was later interviewed  apparently alive and well. While the report claims to be about "incendiary weapons," it exclusively discusses white phosphorus. The Israeli report discusses several incidents involving the use of white phosphorus near hospitals and schools where it claims Hamas fighters and rocket teams were engaging Israeli forces from within or in close proximity of these civilian sites. It concludes that the “scope of casualties and damage” resulting from their use was “relatively limited compared to the significant military advantage gained by smoke-screening.” Israel’s line of argument is consonant with the fact sheet of the American Federation of Scientists which allows that if structures catch fire inadvertently, that does not Second, the use of felt wedges soaked in white phosphorous tends to further reduce dispersal of the substance and its incendiary side effects as compared to exploding munitions containing white phosphorous. The report gives short shrift to Israeli rebuttals of the charge, leaving the impression that the accusations, down to the details, are established fact. The Israeli military said the existing shells contained "minimal amounts" of white phosphorus, and would be "removed from active duty soon". That same year, Israeli forces launched artillery shells containing white phosphorus in the northern part of the besieged Gaza Strip during the 2009 war with Hamas. Posted in 1 by beyondtheborder on August 24, 2009 War crime suspect Lt. Col. David Benjamin is thought to be behind Israel's use of white phosphorous against Palestinian civilians in Gaza. The Geneva Treaty of 1980 stipulates that white phosphorus should not be used as a weapon of war in civilian areas, but there is no blanket ban under international law on its use as a smokescreen or for illumination. Rain of Fire Israel's Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza I. Operation Cast Lead, the Israeli incursion into Gaza from Dec. 27, 2008 to Jan. 18, 2009, prompted Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, two prominent human rights groups, to accuse Israel of committing war crimes. Claims made in the Amnesty International report that witnesses saw no Hamas fighters in an area that was hit by white phosphorus are of dubious credibility considering the control Hamas still exerts over Gazans. While it may be tempting for critics of Israel’s military operation to discount the rebuttal offered by Israel, the longstanding bias against Israel exhibited by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch does not offer an objective source to examine the facts. VideoThe new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? Targeting the munitions at the ground rather than exploding them high in the air would fail to achieve the area of dispersal required for military purposes and would actually result in much more severe damage to buildings and persons on the ground. It concludes that the “scope of casualties and damage” resulting from their use was “relatively limited compared to the significant military advantage gained by smoke-screening.” Israel’s line of argument is consonant with the fact sheet of the American Federation of Scientists which allows that if structures catch fire inadvertently, that does not It concludes that the “scope of casualties and damage” resulting from their use was “relatively limited compared to the significant military advantage gained by smoke-screening.” Israel’s line of argument is consonant with the fact sheet of the American Federation of Scientists which allows that if structures catch fire inadvertently, that does not À cette occasion le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge a donné un aperçu des règles applicables aux armes au phosphore et expliqué la position du CICR, sans confirmer l’utilisation d’armes au phosphore blanc par Israël à Gaza [28]. necessarily constitute a violation. It concludes that the “scope of casualties and damage” resulting from their use was “relatively limited compared to the significant military advantage gained by smoke-screening.” Israel’s line of argument is consonant with the fact sheet of the American Federation of Scientists which allows that if structures catch fire inadvertently, that does not The Israeli response, The Operation in Gaza, Factual and Legal Aspects, published on July 29, 2009, provides a rebuttal to the charges lodged by Amnesty International and others. The Times first accused Israeli forces of using white phosphorus on January 5, but the IDF has denied the charge repeatedly. One clear difference between the Israeli report and the Amnesty International report is the tone in which it is written. Ashkenazi announces IDF commision of inquiry to determine whether white phosophorus has been used. The web site contains no further update to this original statement. “Experiencing the attack on the school was more difficult for me than the attack on the house. The Amnesty International Report July 2009, Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting and Analysis, Ignited white phosphorus is used to create a smoke screen to conceal the movement of ground troops. The Gaza Strip also borders Egypt, which severely restricts movement in and out of the territory. The Amnesty International report expresses full confidence in its accusations even though the evidence is controversial and the credibility of witness testimonies questionable under existing circumstances. The International Red Cross has taken a more cautious position than Amnesty International or Human Rights Watch. One clear difference between the Israeli report and the Amnesty International report is the tone in which it is written. Smoke obscurants containing white phosphorous were not used for targeting purposes and are not intended as anti-personnel weapon they cannot be classified as an indiscriminate weapon; otherwise, any smoke-screening means would be prohibited, in contrast to the well-established practice of militaries worldwide The Amnesty International report does not pursue this argument, focusing instead on the use of these devices in densely populated areas: …in Gaza Israeli forces repeatedly fired them into densely populated residential areas, knowing that such imprecise weapons would kill and injure civilians. Israel has insisted that its use of white phosphorus in the conflict was permitted under international law and that it sought to avoid unnecessary civilian deaths in Gaza. The Israeli report discusses several incidents involving the use of white phosphorus near hospitals and schools where it claims Hamas fighters and rocket teams were engaging Israeli forces from within or in close proximity of these civilian sites. The Israeli report on July 29 examines many of the incidents described by the Amnesty International report and offers contradictory information. The IDF took several precautions and other measures that were appropriate with respect to these particular munitions. It can also be used as an incendiary device against enemy positions. Such attacks were indiscriminate and as such unlawful under international law. 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The still unanswered question is how many Palestinian casualties were caused by white phosphorus and how severe were most of these casualties. The still unanswered question is how many Palestinian casualties were caused by white phosphorus and how severe were most of these casualties. International law restricts the use of white phosphorus during war. A protocol to the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons bans the use of white phosphorus as an incendiary weapon against civilian populations or in air attacks against enemy forces in civilian areas. In particular, Amnesty International criticizes the manner in which Israel deployed the shells. Israel claims that it used white phosphorus strictly according to accepted practices and took measures to minimize civilians casualties. Furthermore, air-bursting the munitions at a considerable distance above ground meant that it was less likely that any person or building would be harmed by the explosions. necessarily constitute a violation. White phosphorus munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in First Chechen War and Second Chechen War. Israel however, defines these types of shells as “smoke projectiles” and not as “exploding” munitions or incendiaries and therefore finds their use permissible under normal conventions. The Israeli report, by comparison, takes a more cautious approach, indicating that a number of incidents are still under investigation. The bombing started around 5:00am and it was dark. The Israeli report also discusses in detail the Tel al-Hawa school incident in which white phosphorus filaments apparently set fire to civilian structures. The still unanswered question is how many Palestinian casualties were caused by white phosphorus and how severe were most of these casualties. The rest of this report looks at charges lodged by Amnesty International, in its July, 2009 report and Israel’s response to these charges that was published on July 29, 2009. Second, the use of felt wedges soaked in white phosphorous tends to further reduce dispersal of the substance and its incendiary side effects as compared to exploding munitions containing white phosphorous. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Pfizer vaccine judged safe for use in UK next week. The Israeli report on July 29 examines many of the incidents described by the Amnesty International report and offers contradictory information. A look at the criticism and legal status of white phosphorus use in warfare. The tetrahedral arrangement results in ring strain and instability. The Amnesty International report expresses full confidence in its accusations even though the evidence is controversial and the credibility of witness testimonies questionable under existing circumstances. Both organizations habitually charge Israel with war crimes after major military operations. to create smoke screens, rather than to attack personnel or destroy buildings, purposes for which IDF has a variety of more effective munitions. Report. The Israeli report also discusses in detail the Tel al-Hawa school incident in which white phosphorus filaments apparently set fire to civilian structures. Yet in Gaza Israeli forces repeatedly fired them into densely populated residential areas, knowing that such imprecise weapons would kill and injure civilians. The Israeli report addresses this question: …In the case of smoke munitions containing white phosphorous, the expected military benefit was that they would protect Israeli forces from attack: a compelling military objective. This distinction is crucial, because if the shells are not incendiaries but only smoke screen projectiles, then the indiscriminate charge becomes less relevant since smoke screen agents are by definition not targeted weapons. … The American Federation of Scientists. On January 22, 2009 the New York Times reported. Used in this way in open areas, it is not considered an incendiary or anti-personnel weapon and is not subject to the restrictions that apply to incendiary weapons. Each shell ejected over a hundred felt wedges impredgnated with highly incendiary white phosphorus, which rained down over houses and streets…. First, the munitions were used only for the purpose for which they were designed, i.e. to create smoke screens, rather than to attack personnel or destroy buildings, purposes for which IDF has a variety of more effective munitions. Furthermore, air-bursting the munitions at a considerable distance above ground meant that it was less likely that any person or building would be harmed by the explosions. M110A1 155mm White Phosphorus (WP) Projectile. .css-8h1dth-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-8h1dth-Link:hover,.css-8h1dth-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. Against this objective, one must weigh the anticipated risk of harm to civilians and property from the use of smoke munitions, which are designed to be a non-lethal type of munition. The report describes the IDF’s use of white phosphorus: The IDF used two different types of munitions containing white phosphorous – exploding munitions and smoke projectiles… Exploding munitions were used only in open unpopulated areas for marking and signalling. White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus or simply tetraphosphorus (P 4) exists as molecules made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral structure. Against this objective, one must weigh the anticipated risk of harm to civilians and property from the use of smoke munitions, which are designed to be a non-lethal type of munition. To review the actual reports see the links below: The Israeli Report of July 29, 2009 The Amnesty International Report July 2009 For more information on Amnesty International’s history of charging Israel with crimes review NGO Monitor. White phosphorus grenades were used in Vietnam for destroying Viet Cong tunnel complexes as they would burn up all oxygen and suffocate the enemy soldiers sheltering inside. 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